Everything You Need To Know About Hydraulic Press

Everything You Need To Know About Hydraulic Press

A hydraulic press is a machine press using a hydraulic cylinder to produce a compressive force.

It uses the hydraulic equivalent of a mechanical lever and was also known as a Bramah press after the inventor, Joseph Bramah, of England. He invented and was issued a patent on this press in 1795.

What is Hydraulic Press?

The hydraulic press could be a device that is predicated on the ‘Pascal’s law’ that states that equal intensity of pressure exerts on all the directions in a confined system.

It’s applied here in a way that if there’s any pressure amendment at one point in a confined system then the same intensity of the pressure can amendment can be seen in other points within the same system.

Construction Of Hydraulic Press

It has two simple cylinders connected to each other, containing an adequate quantity of hydraulic fluid in it. One of the cylinders is larger in size when compared to the other. Both the cylinders have pistons in them, the larger piston is called as a “ram” and a small one a “plunger”.

As seen in the figure, a small force “F” applied on the plunger, in the downward direction, presses the hydraulic fluid below it. This pressure is transmitted equally in all directions and raises the “ram” (Pascal’s Law). The heavier load placed “W” on the “ram” is thus lifted up.

Working Principle Of Hydraulic Press

The force applied on the plunger may be small when compared to the weight placed on the ram. Also, the area of the plunger is small in comparison to the area of the ram. But the pressure acting on the plunger (produced by force “F” on the plunger), and the ram is the same (Pascal’s Law). It is the area on which the pressure is acting that makes the difference.

The pressure “P” acts on the ram, which has a large area. The same pressure “P” acting on the plunger has a small area. Also, the distance travelled by the plunger is more when compared to the distance travelled by the ram. This makes a small force applied on the plunger capable of lifting heavy loads placed on the ram.

simple press

  • Let W = weight to be lifted,
  • F = force applied on the plunger,
  • A = area of the ram,
  • “a” = area of the plunger,
  • P = pressure intensity produced by force F.

We know that:

pressure P = Force / Area of plunger

Pressure intensity produced by the force F, P= F/Area of plunger = F/a

As per Pascal’s law, the above intensity P will be equally transmitted in all directions.

Therefore, The pressure intensity on ram = P = F/a = W/A or W= F(A/a)

Above Equation indicates that by applying a small force F on the plunger, a large force W may be developed by the ram.

If the force in the plunger is applied by a lever which has a mechanical advantage (L/l) then the total mechanical advantage of machine = (L/l)(W/F)

The ratio (L/l) is known as leverage of press. But mechanical advantage can be defined as “the ratio of weight lifted to the force acting on the plunger.”

So M.A = W/F.

Types Of Hydraulic Presses

Below listed are the different types of hydraulic presses available today.

  1. Universal hydraulic press
  2. Vertical frame hydraulic press
  3. Horizontal hydraulic press
  4. Single column hydraulic press
  5. Four-column hydraulic press

Uses Of Hydraulic Press

Hydraulic Press may be employed for the following jobs:

  1. Metal presswork (to press sheet metal to any required shape).
  2. Drawing and pushing rods.
  3. Bending and straightening any metal piece.
  4. Packing press.

Advantages Of Hydraulic Press

Here are some of the advantages of using a hydraulic press.

  1. Built-in overload protection
  2. Greater versatility compared to the mechanical press
  3. It is compact
  4. It is quiet in operation
  5. It is safe compared to the mechanical press
  6. Lower initial and operating cost
  7. It offers a full-power stroke
  8. Lower tool cost due to built-in overload protection

Disadvantages Of Hydraulic Press

Here are some of the advantages of using a hydraulic press.

  1. Handling of hydraulic oil can be messy
  2. There are chances of hydraulic fluid leakage
  3. Hydraulic lines could burst due to excess pressure
  4. Some hydraulic fluids can catch fire
  5. The system gets heated because the hydraulic fluid is forced through the pumps
  6. It has a low operational speed
  7. They have relatively high energy consumption

Leverage For A Hydraulic Press

A lever is employed to achieve ratio once lifting significant weights that hydraulic systems have already got reduced the force which has got to be applied by multiples. By employing a lever together with a press, the ratio gained is additional optimized.

Industrial Hydraulic Press

The picture at the right represents a typical industrial mechanical press. it’s a hard and fast cylinder during which a ram is slippery. To the lower finish of the ram, a movable plate is connected, because the ram moves up and down, the movable plate connected to the ram conjointly moves up and down between 2 fastened plates.

Once a hydraulic fluid is provided beneath air mass into the cylinder, the ram moves down exerting a force, that is adequate to the merchandise of the intensity of the pressure of the hydraulic fluid and therefore the space of the ram on that it acts.

Therefore any material placed between the movable plate and therefore the lower fastened plate gets ironed or maybe crushed betting on the pressure of the oil provided. The come weights, that are suspended at the side of the movable plate, make sure that the ram moves keep a copy once the pressure within the cylinder is free.


We have discussed the construction of hydraulic press, it’s construction, types, advantages, disadvantages in the above article.

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